Quotation from the Psychoanalytic Literature
		Concerning Early Math Education 
		  (Division Fact Suppression)


      Here is a lesson in overcoming, in one case at least, a student's
problem with the long division algorithm.  It is taken from the book,
*Melanie Klein* by Hanna Segal, New York, The Viking Press, 1980.  Melanie
Klein was born in Vienna in 1882 and emigrated to England in 1927, where
she was a pioneer in the psychoanalysis of children.  Hanna Segal, also a
psychoanalyst, was for years a close associate of Klein's. 

      The following quotation is from page 63. It begins with an
introductory sentence by Hanna Segal, followed by a direct quotation from
Melanie Klein herself (footnoted attribution not reproduced here), and
concludes with a paragraph by Segal again, in which it is suggested that
the psycnoanalytic method might mitigate more than merely mathematical
maladaptations.

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[Segal]
         ...In the first part of [Klein's] paper she relates inhibitions
in school activities mainly to castration anxiety; she goes on to
introduce other elements, both aggressive and pre-genital.

[Klein]
             Fritz had a marked inhibition in doing division sums, all
explanations proving unavailing, for he understood them quite well but
always did these sums wrong.  He told me once that in doing division he
had first of all to bring down the figure that was required and he climbed
up, siezed it by the arm, and pulled it down.  To my enquiry as to what it
said to that, he replied that quite certainly it was not pleasant for the
number -- it was as if his mother stood on a stone 13 yards high and
someone came and caught her by the arm so that they tore it out and
divided her.  Shortly beforehand, however, he had phantasied about a
woman in the circus who was sawn in pieces and then nevertheless comes to
life again, and now he asked me whether this is possible.  He then related
(also in connection with a previously elaborated phantasy) that actually
every child wants to have a bit of his mother, who is to be cut into four
pieces; he depicted quite exactly how she screamed and had paper stuffed
in her mouth so she could not scream and what kind of faces she made, etc. 
A child took a very sharp knife and he described how she was cut up; first
across the width of the breast and then up the belly; and then lengthwise
so that the "pipi" (penis), the faeces and the head were cut exactly
through the middle, whereby the "sense" (the "sense" was the penis) was
taken out of her head. 

[Segal]
         After the interpretation of those phantasies his inhibitions in
regard to division completely disappeared.  Another child, Greta, saw
parsing in grammar as an actual dismembering and dissection of a roast
rabbit -- which often represented her mother's breast and genital...